Hurel S., Roupret M., Seisen T., Comperat E., Phe V., Droupy S., Audenet F., Pignot G., Cathelineau X., Guy L., Cussenot O., Ouzzane A., Bozzini G., Nison L., Ruffion A., Colin P.   Influence of preoperative factors on the oncologic outcome for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy.  World J. Urol..  2015 ;33 :335-341

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of preoperative factors on the survival of patients diagnosed with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent a radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). METHODS: A multicentre retrospective study was performed on all patients with UTUC who underwent a RNU. Multiple preoperative criteria were tested as prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (CSS) using univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 476 patients with a median age of 69.2 (IQR 60.8-76.5) years were included. The median follow-up was 27.8 months (IQR 10.5-49.3). At the time of diagnosis, 400 (84.1 %) patients presented with symptoms and 76 patients (15.9 %) were asymptomatic. Renal failure, altered general health, a preoperative locally advanced tumour and multifocal disease appeared to be preoperative prognostic factors for CSS (p = 0.01, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.03, respectively) in the univariate analysis. Only renal failure (p = 0.03), a preoperative locally advanced tumour (0.004), and multifocal locations (p = 0.01) were confirmed as independent factors of CSS in the multivariate analysis. The independent prognosticators of definitive muscle-invasive stage and non-organ-confined disease were preoperative renal failure (p = 0.02, 0.027, respectively), locally advanced stage (p < 0.001, <0.001, respectively) and positive cytology (p = 0.006, 0.003 respectively). Female gender was independent factor only for prediction of final non-organ-confined disease (p = 0.007). The addition of these parameters in our preoperative complex model permitted the prediction of muscle-invasive or locally advanced disease in 65.3 and 67.2 % of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with preoperative impaired renal function, locally advanced stage and multifocal tumours before RNU had worse survival outcomes compared to other patients.

Hurabielle C., Ingen-Housz-Oro S., Ortonne N., Cornillet-Lefèbvre P., Merah A., D'Incan M., Joly P., Franck N., Estève E., Maubec E., Grange F., Machet L., Laroche L., Barete S., Dalac S., Mortier L., Michel C., Quereux G., Saiag P., Ram-Wolff C., Lenormand B., Wechsler J., Bastuji-Garin S., Bagot M., Delfau-Larue M. H.   Frequency and prognostic value of cutaneous molecular residual disease in mycosis fungoides: a prospective multicentre trial of the Cutaneous Lymphoma French Study Group.  Br. J. Dermatol..  2015 ;173 :1015-1023

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal T-cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement is detected in 57-75% of early-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) at diagnosis. A retrospective study showed molecular residual disease (MRD) in 31% of patients in complete clinical remission (CR) after 1 year of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To confirm the frequency of MRD at 1 year and to determine its prognostic value for further relapse. METHODS: Patients with T1-, T2- or T4-stage MF were prospectively included in this multicentre study. At diagnosis, clinical lesions and healthy skin were biopsied. After 1 year of topical treatment, previously involved skin of patients in CR was biopsied for histology and analysis of TCR-gamma gene rearrangement. The results were compared with the clinical status each year for 4 years. RESULTS: We included 214 patients, 133 at T1, 78 at T2 and three at T4 stage. At diagnosis, 126 of 204 cases (61.8%) showed TCR clonality in lesional skin. After 1 year, 83 of 178 patients (46.6%) still being followed up were in CR and 13 of 63 (21%) showed MRD. At 4 years, 55 of 109 patients (50.5%) still being followed up were in CR and 44 of 109 (40.4%) were in T1 stage. MRD did not affect clinical status at 4 years (CR vs. T1/T2, P = 1.0; positive predictive value 36.4%; negative predictive value 67.6%). CONCLUSIONS: T-cell clonality at diagnosis and MRD at 1 year are not prognostic factors of clinical status at 4 years.

Hodel J., Aboukais R., Dutouquet B., Kalsoum E., Benadjaoud M. A., Chechin D., Zins M., Rahmouni A., Luciani A., Pruvo J. P., Lejeune J. P., Leclerc X.   Double Inversion Recovery MR Sequence for the Detection of Subacute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  Am. J. Neuroradiol..  2015 ;36 :251-258

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnosis of subacute subarachnoid hemorrhage is important because rebleeding may occur with subsequent life-threatening hemorrhage. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity of the 3D double inversion recovery sequence compared with CT, 2D and 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*, and 3D SWI sequences for the detection of subacute SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 25 patients with a CT-proved acute SAH. Brain imaging was repeated between days 14 and 16 (mean, 14.75 days) after clinical onset and included MR imaging (2D and 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*, SWI, and 3D double inversion recovery) after CT (median delay, 3 hours; range, 2-5 hours). A control group of 20 healthy volunteers was used for comparison. MR images and CT scans were analyzed independently in a randomized order by 3 blinded readers. For each subject, the presence or absence of hemorrhage was assessed in 4 subarachnoid areas (basal cisterns, Sylvian fissures, interhemispheric fissure, and convexity) and in brain ventricles. The diagnosis of subacute SAH was defined by the presence of at least 1 subarachnoid area with hemorrhage. RESULTS: For the diagnosis of subacute SAH, the double inversion recovery sequence had a higher sensitivity compared with CT (P < .001), 2D FLAIR (P = .005), T2* (P = .02), SWI, and 3D FLAIR (P = .03) sequences. Hemorrhage was present for all patients in the interhemispheric fissure on double inversion recovery images, while no signal abnormality was noted in healthy volunteers. Interobserver agreement was excellent with double inversion recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the double inversion recovery sequence has a higher sensitivity for the detection of subacute SAH than CT, 2D or 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*, and SWI.

Hochart A., Gaillard V., Baroncini M., André N., Vannier J. P., Vinchon M., Dubrulle F., Lejeune J. P., Vincent C., Nève V., Sudour Bonnange H., Bonne N. X., Leblond P.   Bevacizumab decreases vestibular schwannomas growth rate in children and teenagers with neurofibromatosis type 2.  J. Neuro-Oncol..  2015 ;124 :229-236

Vestibular schwannoma (VS) growth in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) can be responsible for brainstem compression and hearing loss. Surgical removal remains the standard therapy despite potential morbidity. Previous studies suggested that the inhibition of the VEGF-pathway with bevacizumab could result in hearing improvement, reduction of the tumor volume or both in adults. We retrospectively describe the French experience of bevacizumab treatment delivered for progressive VS in pediatric NF2 patients. Patients received Bevacizumab 5 or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks according to the physician's choice. Follow-up included clinical assessment, audiometry and volumetric MRI every 3-6 months. Seven patients harboring 11 VS were included. The median age at inclusion was 15 years (11.4-18.8), and the median treatment duration was 11.3 months (3.2-55.6). At baseline, the median tumor volume was 1.2 cm(3) (0.52-13.5) and the median word recognition score was 90 % (0-100). We observed one major response, two minor responses and a decrease in the rate of tumor growth for the 4 other patients. The median annual growth rate before treatment was significantly higher than after 1 year of treatment (138 vs. 36 %, n = 5, p = 0.043). We noted one hearing improvement over the course of 1 year under treatment (hearing response rate was 14 %). Overall, the treatment was well tolerated. Our study supports that bevacizumab is an attractive therapeutic option for pediatric NF2 patients with growing VS. Thorough multidisciplinary evaluation is necessary to identify the best candidates prior to treatment. It is likely that a better functional outcome would be expected if targeted therapies were discussed early in the management of the disease.

Helfrich O., Crouzet S., Ruffion A., Houlgatte A., Cavillon C., Gerard C., Villers A.   Evolution of the number of incident cases of prostate cancer in France from 2001 to 2012 from 5 hospital centers.  Prog. Urol..  2015 ;25 :147-156

OBJECTIVES: The main objective is the study of the evolution of the number of incident cases of prostate cancer in France from 2001 to 2012 from 5 hospital centers of urology. The secondary objective is to describe the characteristics of the incident cases and to compare them to those of the patients of the national registers of cancer for the period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational multicentric study from 01/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 of databases in 5 French, public and private hospital centers of urology. The inclusive centers were selected outside departments with cancer register. The collected data were the prostatic biopsies performed in every center and the number of positive biopsies. The biopsies in cases of already known cancer and in re-evaluation were excluded. The data of age and stage (PSA and Gleason grade) were collected. The estimation of the incidence standardized in France is established after a period of observation of 3 years. The data updated in 2009 show a peak of incidence in 2005 then a decrease from 2006 (64,518 cases) until 2009 (53,465 cases). The median age in the diagnosis was of 70 years in 2005. RESULTS: Overall, 18,392 prostatic biopsies were included in the analysis. The average rate of positive biopsies was stable over the period 51.41% (IQR 0,02). The total number of cases of positive biopsies increased from 2001 to 2007 (482 cases in 1028 cases) in 2007, then decreased from 2008 to 2012 (649 cases). There was no difference in this variation between the centers. The median age in the diagnosis was of 70 years (EIQ=1.5) in 2001 and 68 years (EIQ=2.75) in 2012. PSA at diagnosis was<10ng/mL in 65% of cases and 10 to 20ng/mL in 22% of cases in 2012. The population of patients of the study differed significantly from that of FRANCIM on the distribution by age ranges (year 2005, P<0.0001 and year 2009, P<0.001), which explains the gap of one year (on 2007 instead of 2006) of the peak of incidental cases. CONCLUSION: The evolution of the number of incidental cases of prostate cancer in France from 2001 to 2012 from hospital data of 5 centers are similar to those of the network of registers representative of the French population. This observed evolution represents data available for cancer registers to estimate incidence variation between 2 publications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

Heijnsdijk E. A. M., de Carvalho T. M., Auvinen A., Zappa M., Nelen V., Kwiatkowski M., Villers A., Paez A., Moss S. M., Tammela T. L. J., Recker F., Denis L., Carlsson S. V., Wever E. M., Bangma C. H., Schroder F. H., Roobol M. J., Hugosson J., de Koning H. J.   Cost-effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Screening: A Simulation Study Based on ERSPC Data.  JNCI-J. Natl. Cancer Inst..  2015 ;107 :366

BACKGROUND: The results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial showed a statistically significant 29% prostate cancer mortality reduction for the men screened in the intervention arm and a 23% negative impact on the life-years gained because of quality of life. However, alternative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening strategies for the population may exist, optimizing the effects on mortality reduction, quality of life, overdiagnosis, and costs. METHODS: Based on data of the ERSPC trial, we predicted the numbers of prostate cancers diagnosed, prostate cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, and cost-effectiveness of 68 screening strategies starting at age 55 years, with a PSA threshold of 3, using microsimulation modeling. The screening strategies varied by age to stop screening and screening interval (one to 14 years or once in a lifetime screens), and therefore number of tests. RESULTS: Screening at short intervals of three years or less was more cost-effective than using longer intervals. Screening at ages 55 to 59 years with two-year intervals had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $73000 per QALY gained and was considered optimal. With this strategy, lifetime prostate cancer mortality reduction was predicted as 13%, and 33% of the screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. When better quality of life for the post-treatment period could be achieved, an older age of 65 to 72 years for ending screening was obtained. CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer screening can be cost-effective when it is limited to two or three screens between ages 55 to 59 years. Screening above age 63 years is less cost-effective because of loss of QALYs because of overdiagnosis.

Heidenreich A., Chowdhury S., Klotz L., Siemens D. R., Villers A., Ivanescu C., Holmstrom S., Baron B., Wang F., Forer D., Shore N.   Impact of enzalutamide (ENZA) compared with bicalutamide (BIC) on quality of life (QoL) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC): Results from the TERRAIN study.  Eur. J. Cancer.  2015 ;51 :S495-S495
Hauschild A., Hansson J., Grob J. J., Kunstfeld R., Dreno B., Mortier L., Ascierto P. A., Dummer R., Licitra L., Fife K., Ernst D. S., Dutriaux C., Jouary T., Meyer N., Guillot B., Williams S., Tandon M., Hou J., Basset-Seguin N.   Exploratory analysis of vismodegib (VISMO) treatment discontinuation in the STEVIE study.  Eur. J. Cancer.  2015 ;51 :S681-S682
Hansson J., Bartley K., Grob J. J., Kuntsfeld R., Dreno B., Mortier L., Ascierto P. A., Licitra L., Dutriaux C., Jouary T., Meyer N., Guillot B., Dummer R., Fife K., Ernst D. S., Yim Y. M., Williams S., Fittipaldo A., Basset-Seguin N., Hauschild A.   Assessment of quality of life using Skindex-16 in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) treated with vismodegib in the STEVIE study.  Eur. J. Cancer.  2015 ;51 :S680-S681
Hanssens S., Rubod C., Kerdraon O., Vinatier D., Lucot J. P., Duhamel A., Collinet P.   Pelvic endometriosis in women under 25: a specific management?.  Minerva Med..  2015 ;106 :123-131

AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women under 25 years with pelvic endometriosis and assess their potential for recurrence and fertility after surgery. METHODS: In a comparative retrospective study, 108 patients aged less than 25 years who underwent surgery for pelvic endometriosis were included: 49 in the DIE group (deep infiltrating endometriosis) and 59 in the SE group (superficial endometriosis). The main outcome measures were complications, recurrence and fertility. This study received the favorable opinion of the CEROG No 2012-GYN-04-02. RESULTS: The diagnosis was made at 21.6 +/- 2.8 years, mainly considering clinical signs (78.4%), and on average 4.3 +/- 3.7 years after the onset of symptoms; 16.1% of patients had to be reoperated (N.=5/31) due to a recurrence of their endometriosis. There were more recurrent pain (50% vs. 21.7%, P=0.005) and endometriosis (35.7 vs. 19.6%, P=0.08) in the DIE group. 75% (N.=33/44) patients desired pregnancy after surgery and 50% of them became pregnant, with one third thanks to assisted reproductive technology. CONCLUSION: In young women, endometriosis is often more severe. The early treatment does not improve the rate of recurrence and fertility, but can reduce pain and thus improve the quality of life.