Vermandel M., Betrouni N.   A new phantom to assess and correct geometrical distortions for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Design and preliminary experiments.  IRBM.  2015 ;36 :52-60
Vermandel M.   2014 Impact Factor released.  IRBM.  2015 ;36 :199-199
Vandaele P., Marcelli F., Ouzzane A., Puech P., Villers A., Rigot J. M.   Testicular nodules of infertile men and contrast enhanced ultrasonography: Preliminary study (vol 25, pg 274, 2015).  Prog. Urol..  2015 ;25 :361-361
Vandaele P., Marcelli F., Ouzzane A., Puech P., Villers A., Rigot J. M.   Testicular nodules of infertile men and contrast enhanced ultrasonography: Preliminary study.  Prog. Urol..  2015 ;25 :274-281

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of testicular nodules discovered during infertility evaluation is increasing. These nodules are suspicious of malignancy. There is no paraclinical examination which allows histological orientation to these nodules. The recommendations propose priority treatment by total orchidectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Through a retrospective cohort study of infertile patients, our goal is to study the enhancement of testicular nodules after injection of ultrasound contrast. The secondary objective is to determine whether CEUS may argue in favor of conservative treatment. From june 2010 to march 2013, 24 patients had underwent ultrasound contrast study of abnormal testicular parenchyma detected prior to infertility evaluation carried ultrasound. The characteristics of ultrasound enhancement were correlated with the pathological findings of surgical patients and proposed treatments (surgery or surveillance). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were followed up, 9 were operated (7 partial orchidectomies, 2 total orchidectomies). Histological analysis found four Leydig cell tumors, 2 Sertoli cell tumors and 3 seminomas. No adverse changes were noted during the follow-up. This study showed a typical semiology of early, intense and homogeneous enhancement with a phenomenon of wash in 100% of Leydig cell tumors. All Leydig cell tumors have been treated by partial orchidectomy. Seminomas have intense enhancement in 100% of cases. There was a phenomenon of wash in 2 out of 3 cases. When a wash in was described, it was always described as heterogeneous. All seminomas were finally treated by total orchidectomy. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of ultrasound intense enhancement for the diagnosis of testicular cancer was 89% (Se) and 80% (PPV). CONCLUSION: There is a semiology of ultrasound enhancement of testicular nodules with features that can guide in favor of a malignant tumor, seminoma or Leydig cell tumor. If a prospective study was undertaken, these arrangements could guide us to treatments promoting preservation of the testicular parenchyma.

Ukimura O., Marien A., Palmer S., Villers A., Aron M., de Castro Abreu A. L., Leslie S., Shoji S., Matsugasumi T., Gross M., Dasgupta P., Gill I. S.   Trans-rectal ultrasound visibility of prostate lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging increases accuracy of image-fusion targeted biopsies.  World J. Urol..  2015 ;33 :1669-1676

PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic yield of targeted prostate biopsy using image-fusion of multi-parametric magnetic resonance (mp-MR) with real-time trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) for clinically significant lesions that are suspicious only on mp-MR versus lesions that are suspicious on both mp-MR and TRUS. METHODS: Pre-biopsy MRI and TRUS were each scaled on a 3-point score: highly suspicious, likely, and unlikely for clinically significant cancer (sPCa). Using an MR-TRUS elastic image-fusion system (Koelis), a 127 consecutive patients with a suspicious clinically significant index lesion on pre-biopsy mp-MR underwent systematic biopsies and MR/US-fusion targeted biopsies (01/2010-09/2013). Biopsy histological outcomes were retrospectively compared with MR suspicion level and TRUS-visibility of the MR-suspicious lesion. sPCa was defined as biopsy Gleason score >/=7 and/or maximum cancer core length >/=5 mm. RESULTS: Targeted biopsies outperformed systematic biopsies in overall cancer detection rate (61 vs. 41 %; p = 0.007), sPCa detection rate (43 vs. 23 %; p = 0.0013), cancer core length (7.5 vs. 3.9 mm; p = 0.0002), and cancer rate per core (56 vs. 12 %; p < 0.0001), respectively. Highly suspicious lesions on mp-MR correlated with higher positive biopsy rate (p < 0.0001), higher Gleason score (p = 0.018), and greater cancer core length (p < 0.0001). Highly suspicious lesions on TRUS in corresponding to MR-suspicious lesion had a higher biopsy yield (p < 0.0001) and higher sPCa detection rate (p < 0.0001). Since majority of MR-suspicious lesions were also suspicious on TRUS, TRUS-visibility allowed selection of the specific MR-visible lesion which should be targeted from among the multiple TRUS suspicious lesions in each prostate. CONCLUSIONS: MR-TRUS fusion-image-guided biopsies outperformed systematic biopsies. TRUS-visibility of a MR-suspicious lesion facilitates image-guided biopsies, resulting in higher detection of significant cancer.

Toffart A. C., Dhalluin X., Girard N., Chouaid C., Audigier-Valette C., Duruisseaux M., Mennecier B., Parrot A., Fournel P., Moro-Sibilot D., Timsit J. F.   Patients with advanced lung cancer harboring oncogenic mutations should be admitted to intensive care units.  Intensive Care Med..  2015 ;41 :164-165
Thomas P. A., Berbis J., Baste J. M., Le Pimpec-Barthes F., Tronc F., Falcoz P. E., Dahan M., Loundou A.   Pneumonectomy for lung cancer: contemporary national early morbidity and mortality outcomes.  J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg..  2015 ;149 :73-82

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine contemporary early outcomes associated with pneumonectomy for lung cancer and to identify their predictors using a nationally representative general thoracic surgery database (EPITHOR). METHODS: After discarding inconsistent files, a group of 4498 patients who underwent elective pneumonectomy for primary lung cancer between 2003 and 2013 was selected. Logistic regression analysis was performed on variables for mortality and major adverse events. Then, a propensity score analysis was adjusted for imbalances in baseline characteristics between patients with or without neoadjuvant treatment. RESULTS: Operative mortality was 7.8%. Surgical, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and infectious complications rates were 14.9%, 14.1%, 11.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. None of these complications were predicted by the performance of a neoadjuvant therapy. Operative mortality analysis, adjusted for the propensity scores, identified age greater than 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.9; P < .001), underweight body mass index category (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; P = .009), American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or greater (OR, 2.310; 95% CI, 1.615-3.304; P < .001), right laterality of the procedure (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4; P = .011), performance of an extended pneumonectomy (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1; P = .018), and absence of systematic lymphadenectomy (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.8; P = .027) as risk predictors. Induction therapy (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9; P = .005) and overweight body mass index category (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9; P = .033) were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: Several risk factors for major adverse early outcomes after pneumonectomy for cancer were identified. Overweight patients and those who received induction therapy had paradoxically lower adjusted risks of mortality.

Thines L., Petyt G., Aguettaz P., Bodenant M., Himpens F. X., Lenci H., Henon H., Gauthier C., Hossein-Foucher C., Cordonnier C., Lejeune J. P.   Surgical management of Moyamoya disease and syndrome: Current concepts and personal experience.  Rev. Neurol..  2015 ;171 :31-44

In this focus, we review, in the light of the recent literature, the modalities and indications of surgical cerebral revascularization for Moyamoya (MM) disease or syndrome. We also report our experience in the surgical management of adult MM. In symptomatic forms, with presence of severe disturbances of perfusion or cerebrovascular reactivity on multimodal imaging work-up, the risks of recurrent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke is high (respectively 10-13%/yr and 2-7%/yr). The objective of treatment is to augment cerebral perfusion (in ischemic forms) or to reduce lenticulo-striate neovessel overload (in hemorrhagic forms), by initiating the development of a cortical neovascularization and/or by directly increasing cerebral blood flow. The risk of immediate postoperative death or stroke is similar between indirect and direct or combined techniques and respectively 0-0.5% and 3-6%, provided a strict perioperative anesthetic management is applied (normocapnia, normoxia and controlled hypertension). Indirect techniques (i.e. encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-periosteo-synangiosis or multiple burr-holes) are technically easy, allow wide cortical revascularization and are very efficient in children: absence of clinical recurrence in more than 95% of cases and presence of a good neovascularization in 83%. However, their effect is delayed for several months, the impact on the hemorrhagic risk is moderate and the global response is uncertain in adults. Direct (superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass) or combined techniques improve cerebral blood flow immediately and significantly. They are associated with a higher rate of stroke-free survival at 5 years (95% vs 85%). A recent randomized study has proven that they could reduce the hemorrhagic risk by 2- to 3-fold in comparison with conservative treatment alone. However, their feasibility in children is limited by the very small size of vessels. We present also our results in the surgical management of 12 adult MM patients (mean age 41.3, sex ratio=1) operated between 2009 and 2014 (14 revascularization procedures: EDAMS 2, multiple burr-holes 1, combined revascularization procedures 11). MM types according to clinical presentation were the following: ischemic 8, hemorrhagic 2, combined 2. All patients were recently symptomatic, with recurrent ischemic/hemorrhagic events (2/3) or crescendo neurological deficit (1/3) in association with severe alterations of cerebral blood flow. Mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 22 months. Postoperative mRS at 6 months was improved or stable in 92%. None of the patients suffered recurring stroke. In conclusion, surgical treatment should be discussed quickly in symptomatic forms of MM (progressive or recurring) because of their poor outcome. Indirect techniques are favored in pediatric patients due to their simplicity and good clinical results. Direct, or preferentially combined techniques would be more effective in adult patients to prevent the recurrence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.

Templier C., Boulanger E., Boumbar Y., Puisieux F., Dziwniel V., Mortier L., Beuscart J. B.   Systematic skin examination in an acute geriatric unit: skin cancer prevalence.  Clin. Exp. Dermatol..  2015 ;40 :356-360

BACKGROUND: Ageing is a determining factor in skin cancer, but the incidence and prevalence of skin cancer in elderly patients are not known. AIM: To determine the prevalence of skin cancers in elderly patients and to assess their associated geriatric syndromes. METHODS: Between January and April 2013, all consecutive incident patients hospitalized in the Acute Geriatric Unit of Lille University Hospital underwent a geriatric assessment and a systematic dermatological examination. A biopsy was taken whenever there was any lesion with suspicion of malignancy. RESULTS: In total, 204 patients (mean age 85.4 years) were included, and 16 cutaneous biopsies were taken from 15 patients. Histological examination confirmed skin cancer in 11 biopsies from 10 patients: 9 basal cell carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 1 malignant lentigo. The prevalence of skin cancer was 4.9%. The geriatric assessment revealed severe geriatric syndromes in the 10 patients with skin cancer: severe dependence (8/10), possible cognitive impairment (10/10), and moderate or severe malnutrition (5/10). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of skin cancer is high in frail elderly patients. The association of severe geriatric syndromes suggests that close collaboration between geriatricians and dermatologists is essential to optimize the treatment of skin carcinoma in elderly patients.