Larue L., Ben Mihoub A., Youssef Z., Colombeau L., Acherar S., André J. C., Arnoux P., Baros F., Vermandel M., Frochot C.   Using X-rays in photodynamic therapy: an overview.  Photochem. Photobiol. Sci..  2018 ;17 :1612-1650

Photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic option to treat cancer and other diseases. PDT is used every day in dermatology, and recent developments in the treatment of glioblastoma, mesothelioma or prostate have demonstrated the efficacy of this modality. In order to improve the efficacy of PDT, different strategies are under development, such as the use of targeted PS or nanoparticles to improve selectivity and the design of light devices to better monitor the light dose. Due to the low penetration of light into tissue, another way to improve the efficacy of PDT to treat deep tumors is the use of upconversion NPs or bi-photon absorption compounds. These compounds can be excited in the red part of the spectrum. A relatively new approach, which we will call PDTX, is the use of X-rays instead of UV-visible light for deeper penetration into tissue. The principle of this technique will be described, and the state-of-art literature concerning this modality will be discussed. First, we will focus on various photosensitizers that have been used in combination with X-ray irradiation. To improve the efficacy of this modality, nanoparticles have been designed that allow the conversion of high-energy ionizing radiation into UV-visible light; these are potential candidates for the PDTX approach. They will be discussed at the end of this review.

Khamari R., Trinh A., Gabert P. E., Corazao-Rozas P., Riveros-Cruz S., Balayssac S., Malet-Martino M., Dekiouk S., Curt M. J. C., Maboudou P., Garcon G., Ravasi L., Guerreschi P., Mortier L., Quesnel B., Marchetti P., Kluza J.   Glucose metabolism and NRF2 coordinate the antioxidant response in melanoma resistant to MAPK inhibitors.  Cell Death Dis..  2018 ;9 :325

Targeted therapies as BRAF and MEK inhibitor combination have been approved as first-line treatment for BRAF-mutant melanoma. However, disease progression occurs in most of the patients within few months of therapy. Metabolic adaptations have been described in the context of acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi). BRAFi-resistant melanomas are characterized by an increase of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and are more prone to cell death induced by mitochondrial-targeting drugs. BRAFi-resistant melanomas also exhibit an enhancement of oxidative stress due to mitochondrial oxygen consumption increase. To understand the mechanisms responsible for survival of BRAFi-resistant melanoma cells in the context of oxidative stress, we have established a preclinical murine model that accurately recapitulates in vivo the acquisition of resistance to MAPK inhibitors including several BRAF or MEK inhibitors alone and in combination. Using mice model and melanoma cell lines generated from mice tumors, we have confirmed that the acquisition of resistance is associated with an increase in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as well as the importance of glutamine metabolism. Moreover, we have demonstrated that BRAFi-resistant melanoma can adapt mitochondrial metabolism to support glucose-derived glutamate synthesis leading to increase in glutathione content. Besides, BRAFi-resistant melanoma exhibits a strong activation of NRF-2 pathway leading to increase in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is involved in the regeneration of reduced glutathione, and to increase in xCT expression, a component of the xc-amino acid transporter essential for the uptake of cystine required for intracellular glutathione synthesis. All these metabolic modifications sustain glutathione level and contribute to the intracellular redox balance to allow survival of BRAFi-resistant melanoma cells.

Kerbage Y., Canlorbe G., Estevez J. P., Grabarz A., Mordon S., Uzan C., Collinet P., Azaïs H.   [Microscopic peritoneal metastases of epithelial ovarian cancers. Clinical relevance, diagnostic and therapeutic tools].  Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol.  2018 ;46 :497-502

Understanding the biology and progression mechanisms of peritoneal metastases in ovarian epithelial cancers (EOC) is important because peritoneal carcinomatosis is present or will occur during surveillance of a majority of patients. Despite the clinical remission achieved after complete macroscopic cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, 60% of patients will develop peritoneal recurrence. This suggests that microscopic lesions, which are not eradicated by surgery may be present and may participate in the mechanisms leading to peritoneal recurrence. This paper discusses current available data on microscopic peritoneal metastases, their diagnosis and their treatment. We reviewed all publications dealing with microscopic peritoneal metastases of EOC between 1980 and 2017. The most recent and most relevant publications dealing with the treatment modalities of these metastases were selected. Peritoneal and epiploic microscopic localizations would occur in 1.2 to 15.1% of cases at early-stage and are not treated during conventional surgery. They could represent a potential therapeutic target. Local treatments (intraperitoneal chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, fluorescence-guided surgery) seem to be necessary in addition to surgery and chemotherapy and may help reduce the risk of peritoneal recurrence. The place of these treatments in the management of EOC remains to be defined by subsequent researches.

Kasivisvanathan V., Rannikko A. S., Borghi M., Panebianco V., Mynderse L. A., Vaarala M. H., Briganti A., Budäus L., Hellawell G., Hindley R. G., Roobol M. J., Eggener S., Ghei M., Villers A., Bladou F., Villeirs G. M., Virdi J., Boxler S., Robert G., Singh P. B., Venderink W., Hadaschik B. A., Ruffion A., Hu J. C., Margolis D., Crouzet S., Klotz L., Taneja S. S., Pinto P., Gill I., Allen C., Giganti F., Freeman A., Morris S., Punwani S., Williams N. R., Brew-Graves C., Deeks J., Takwoingi Y., Emberton M., Moore C. M.   MRI-Targeted or Standard Biopsy for Prostate-Cancer Diagnosis.  N. Engl. J. Med..  2018 ;378 :1767-1777

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. Men in the MRI-targeted biopsy group underwent a targeted biopsy (without standard biopsy cores) if the MRI was suggestive of prostate cancer; men whose MRI results were not suggestive of prostate cancer were not offered biopsy. Standard biopsy was a 10-to-12-core, transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. The primary outcome was the proportion of men who received a diagnosis of clinically significant cancer. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of men who received a diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer. RESULTS: A total of 500 men underwent randomization. In the MRI-targeted biopsy group, 71 of 252 men (28%) had MRI results that were not suggestive of prostate cancer, so they did not undergo biopsy. Clinically significant cancer was detected in 95 men (38%) in the MRI-targeted biopsy group, as compared with 64 of 248 (26%) in the standard-biopsy group (adjusted difference, 12 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 20; P=0.005). MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, was noninferior to standard biopsy, and the 95% confidence interval indicated the superiority of this strategy over standard biopsy. Fewer men in the MRI-targeted biopsy group than in the standard-biopsy group received a diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer (adjusted difference, -13 percentage points; 95% CI, -19 to -7; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of risk assessment with MRI before biopsy and MRI-targeted biopsy was superior to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy in men at clinical risk for prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research and the European Association of Urology Research Foundation; PRECISION number, NCT02380027 .).

Kasivisvanathan V., Rannikko A., Borghi M., Panebianco V., Mynderse L., Vaarala M., Briganti A., Budaus L., Hellawell G., Hindley R., Roobol M., Eggener S., Ghei M., Villers A., Bladou F., Villeirs G., Virdi J., Boxler S., Robert G., Singh P., Venderink W., Hadaschik B., Ruffion A., Hu J., Margolis D., Crouzet S., Klotz L., Taneja S., Pinto P., Gill I., Allen C., Giganti F., Freeman A., Morris S., Punwani S., Williams N., Brew-Graves C., Takwoingi Y., Emberton M., Moore C.   A MULTI-CENTRE RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL ASSESSING WHETHER MRI-TARGETED BIOPSY IS NON-INFERIOR TO STANDARD TRANS-RECTAL ULTRASOUND GUIDED BIOPSY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT PROSTATE CANCER IN MEN WITHOUT PRIOR BIOPSY - THE PRECISION STUD.  J. Urol..  2018 ;199 :E1033-E1033
Jannin A., Espiard S., Benomar K., Do Cao C., Mycinski B., Porte H., D''Herbomez M., Penel N., Vantyghem M. C.   Non-islet-cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH): About a series of 6 cases.  Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris).  2018

The purpose of this study was to analyse the characteristics of 6 patients managed in a university hospital between 1996 and 2016 for non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), a form of hypoglycaemia due to the paraneoplastic secretion of IGF-2 or its related substances. RESULTS: Three of these 6 patients (50%), aged over 69 years, including 2 with acromegaloid phenotype, presented with a pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), with median diameter 20 cm (interquartile range, 12.5-20.5) with a low median SUV (3.3 g/mL (QR, 2-7.5)) on 18F-FDG PET. The other 3 patients presented respectively neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the palate (70-year-old woman), retroperitoneal myxofibrosarcoma (66-year-old man) and meningeal hemangiopericytoma (36-year-old woman). All 3 were inoperable and did not respond to any therapy other than glucose solution. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in the 3 SFTs and the NEC. One of the SFTs recurred 10 years later with asymptomatic hypoglycemia, which resolved after reintervention. Median (IQR) blood glucose levels of the 6 patients was 0.4g/L (QR, 0.31-0.41), with hypoinsulinemia at 0.7mIU/L (QR 0.7-2.0), undetectable GH, low IGF-1, normal IGF-2 level in 5/6 cases, a high IGF-2:IGF-1 ratio at 26.9 (QR, 20.8-37.8), hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. CONCLUSION: NICTH is a rare syndrome, which should be considered in the presence of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low GH and IGF-1, and a IGF-2:IGF-1 ratio>10. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in elderly subjects, particularly with solitary fibrous tumor, which was generally operable. Hemangiopericytoma and myxofibrosarcoma had poor prognosis in younger patients.

Halle E., Azahaf M., Duveau N., Nachury M., Branche J., Gerard R., Wils P., Desreumaux P., Ernst O., Pariente B.   Radiologic response reduces the risk of small-bowel surgery in Crohn''''s disease.  J. Crohns Colitis.  2018 ;12 :S465-S465
Golfier F., Chanavaz-Lacheray I., Descamps P., Agostini A., Poilblanc M., Rousset P., Bolze P. A., Panel P., Collinet P., Hebert T., Graesslin O., Martigny H., Brun J. L., Déchaud H., Malartic C. M., Piechon L., Wattiez A., Chapron C., Daraï E.   The definition of Endometriosis Expert Centres.  J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod.  2018 ;47 :179-181

Endometriosis is a common condition that causes pain and infertility. It can lead to absenteeism and also to multiple surgeries with a consequent risk of impaired fertility, and constitutes a major public health cost. Despite the existence of numerous national and international guidelines, the management of endometriosis remains suboptimal. To address this issue, the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF) and the Society of Gynaecological and Pelvic Surgery (SCGP) convened a committee of experts tasked with defining the criteria for establishing a system of care networks, headed by Expert Centres, covering all of mainland France and its overseas territories. This document sets out the criteria for the designation of Expert Centres. It will serve as a guide for the authorities concerned, to ensure that the means are provided to adequately manage patients with endometriosis.

Gold M. H., Mordon S. R.   TREATMENT OF ACNE SCARRING WITH A NOVEL DUAL-WAVELENGTH LASER.  Lasers Surg. Med..  2018 ;50 :S22-S22
Fritel X., Collinet P., Revel-Delhom C., Canis M.   [CNGOF-HAS Endometriosis guidelines: Aim, method, organisation and limits].  Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol.  2018 ;46 :139-143