Cornelis F., Hélénon O., Correas J. M., Lemaitre L., André M., Meuwly J. Y., Sengel C., Derchi L., Yacoub M., Verkarre V., Grenier N.   Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: a new radiological entity.  Eur. Radiol..  2016 ;26 :1108-1115

UNLABELLED: Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) is a recently identified renal malignancy. While approximately 100 cases of TC-RCC have been reported in the pathology literature, imaging features have not yet been clearly described. The purpose of this review is to describe the main radiologic features of this rare sub-type of RCC on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based jointly on the literature and findings from a multi-institutional retrospective HIPAA-compliant review of pathology and imaging databases. Using a combination of sonographic and CT/MRI features, diagnosis of TC-RCC appeared to be strongly suggested in many cases. KEY POINTS: * Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma is a new entity with typical imaging features * Diagnosis of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma can be suggested preoperatively by imaging * Cystic renal lesions with high echogenicity may correspond to tubulocystic carcinoma.

Corazao-Rozas P., Guerreschi P., André F., Gabert P. E., Lancel S., Dekiouk S., Fontaine D., Tardivel M., Savina A., Quesnel B., Mortier L., Marchetti P., Kluza J.   Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation controls cancer cell's life and death decisions upon exposure to MAPK inhibitors.  Oncotarget.  2016 ;7 :39473-39485

Although MAPK pathway inhibitors are becoming a promising anticancer strategy, they are insufficient to fully eliminate cancer cells and their long-term efficacy is strikingly limited in patients with BRAF-mutant melanomas. It is well established that BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) hamper glucose uptake before the apparition of cell death. Here, we show that BRAFi induce an extensive restructuring of mitochondria including an increase in mitochondrial activity and biogenesis associated with mitochondrial network remodeling. Furthermore, we report a close interaction between ER and mitochondria in melanoma exposed to BRAFi. This physical connection facilitates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake after its release from the ER. Interestingly, Mfn2 silencing disrupts the ER-mitochondria interface, intensifies ER stress and exacerbates ER stress-induced apoptosis in cells exposed to BRAFi in vitro and in vivo. This mitochondrial control of ER stress-mediated cell death is similar in both BRAF- and NRAS-mutant melanoma cells exposed to MEK inhibitors. This evidence reinforces the relevance in combining MAPK pathway inhibitors with mitochondriotropic drugs to improve targeted therapies.

Collet G., Breviere Y., Baillet C., Devos L., Vermandel M., Huglo D.   Impact of a respiratory-gated (18)FDG PET-CT acquisition for the liver lesions diagnosis.  Med. Nucl.-Imag. Fonct. Metab..  2016 ;40 :84-91
Chowdhury S., Shore N. D., Villers A., Klotz L., Siemens D. R., Baron B., van Os S., Hasabou N., Wang F., Forer D., Heidenreich A.   Efficacy and safety of enzalutamide vs bicalutamide in European and North American men participating in the TERRAIN trial.  J. Clin. Oncol..  2016 ;34 :5063-5063
Chilali O., Puech P., Lakroum S., Diaf M., Mordon S., Betrouni N.   Gland and Zonal Segmentation of Prostate on T2W MR Images.  J. Digit. Imaging.  2016 ;29 :730-736

For many years, prostate segmentation on MR images concerned only the extraction of the entire gland. Currently, in the focal treatment era, there is a continuously increasing need for the separation of the different parts of the organ. In this paper, we propose an automatic segmentation method based on the use of T2W images and atlas images to segment the prostate and to isolate the peripheral and transition zones. The algorithm consists of two stages. First, the target image is registered with each zonal atlas image then the segmentation is obtained by the application of an evidential C-Means clustering. The method was evaluated on a representative and multi-centric image base and yielded mean Dice accuracy values of 0.81, 0.70, and 0.62 for the prostate, the transition zone, and peripheral zone, respectively.

Carlsson S., de Carvalho T., Roobol M., Hugosson J., Auvinen A., Kwiatkowski M., Villers A., Zappa M., Nelen V., Paez A., Eastham J., Lilja H., de Koning H., Vickers A., Heijnsdijk E.   ESTIMATING THE HARMS AND BENEFITS OF PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: COMPARING COMMON CLINICAL PRACTICE TO RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE.  J. Urol..  2016 ;195 :E235-E235
Canlorbe G., Bendifallah S., Laas E., Raimond E., Graesslin O., Hudry D., Coutant C., Touboul C., Bleu G., Collinet P., Cortez A., Daraï E., Ballester M.   Tumor Size, an Additional Prognostic Factor to Include in Low-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study.  Ann. Surg. Oncol..  2016 ;23 :171-177

BACKGROUND: Additional tools are needed to improve the selection of women with early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) at increased risk of nodal metastases and/or recurrence to adapt surgical staging and adjuvant therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of EC tumor size on nodal status and recurrence-free survival (RFS) according to European risk groups for recurrence. METHODS: Data of 633 women with early-stage EC who received primary surgical treatment between 2001 and 2012 were abstracted from a multicenter database. Optimal tumor size cut-offs were determined by a minimal p value approach according to final nodal status. Logistic regression was used to determine the impact of defined tumor size on nodal involvement, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival distribution. RESULTS: The number of women with final low-, intermediate-, and high-risk EC was 302, 204, and 127, respectively. Tumor size was correlated with nodal status and RFS in women with low-risk EC, while no correlation was found for women with intermediate/high-risk EC. Tumor size >/=35 mm emerged as the optimal threshold for a higher rate of nodal involvement (odds ratio 4.318, 95 % CI 1.13-16.51, p = 0.03) and a lower RFS (p = 0.005) in women with low-risk EC. CONCLUSION: Tumor size is an independent prognostic factor of lymph node involvement in women with low-risk EC and could be a valuable additional histological criterion for selecting women at increased risk of lymph node metastases to better adapt surgical staging.

Brunot A., Jeudy G., Tas M., Guillot B., Kramkimel N., Mortiert L., Mansard S., Lebbe C., Blom A., Le Corre Y., Montaudie H., Prey S., Campillo-Gimenez B., Lesimple T.   Anti-PD-1 tolerance after severe toxicity with ipilimumab therapy in metastatic melanoma patients.  J. Clin. Oncol..  2016 ;34 :9551-9551
Bruinsma S. M., Bangma C. H., Carroll P. R., Leapman M. S., Rannikko A., Petrides N., Weerakoon M., Bokhorst L. P., Roobol M. J.   Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a narrative review of clinical guidelines.  Nat Rev Urol.  2016 ;13 :151-67

In the past decade active surveillance (AS) of men with localized prostate cancer has become an increasingly popular management option, and a range of clinical guidelines have been published on this topic. Existing guidelines regarding AS for prostate cancer vary widely, but predominantly state that the most suitable patients for AS are those with pretreatment clinical stage T1c or T2 tumours, serum PSA levels <10 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason scores of 6 or less, a maximum of one or two tumour-positive biopsy core samples and/or a maximum of 50% of cancer per core sample. Following initiation of an AS programme, most guidelines recommend serial serum PSA measurements, digital rectal examinations and surveillance biopsies to check for and identify pathological indications of tumour progression. Definitions of disease reclassification and progression differ among guidelines and multiple criteria for initiation of definitive treatment are proposed. The variety of descriptions of criteria for clinically insignificant prostate cancer indicates a lack of consensus on optimal AS and intervention thresholds. A single set of guidelines are needed in order to reduce variations in clinical practice and to optimize clinical decision-making. To enable truly evidence-based guidelines, further research that combines existing evidence, while also gathering information from more long-term studies is needed.

Brahim W., Mestiri M., Betrouni N., Hamrouni K.   Semi-automated Rib Cage Segmentation in CT Images For Mesothelioma Detection.  -.  2016 ;-