Sekulic A., Migden M. R., Basset-Seguin N., Garbe C., Gesierich A., Lao C. D., Miller C., Mortier L., Murrell D. F., Hamid O., Quevedo J. F., Hou J., McKenna E., Dimier N., Williams S., Schadendorf D., Hauschild A.   Long-term safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma: final update of the pivotal ERIVANCE BCC study.  BMC Cancer.  2017 ;17 :332

BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis of the ERIVANCE BCC trial, vismodegib, the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, showed objective response rates (ORRs) by independent review facility (IRF) of 30% and 43% in metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC) and locally advanced BCC (laBCC), respectively. ORRs by investigator review were 45% (mBCC) and 60% (laBCC). Herein, we present long-term safety and final investigator-assessed efficacy results in patients with mBCC or laBCC. METHODS: One hundred four patients with measurable advanced BCC received oral vismodegib 150 mg once daily until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary end point was IRF-assessed ORR. Secondary end points included ORR, duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: At data cutoff (39 months after completion of accrual), 8 patients were receiving the study drug (69 patients in survival follow-up). Investigator-assessed ORR was 48.5% in the mBCC group (all partial responses) and 60.3% in the laBCC group (20 patients had complete response and 18 patients had partial response). ORRs were comparable across patient subgroups, including aggressive histologic subtypes (eg, infiltrative BCC). Median DOR was 14.8 months (mBCC) and 26.2 months (laBCC). Median OS was 33.4 months in the mBCC cohort and not estimable in the laBCC cohort. Adverse events remained consistent with clinical experience. Thirty-three deaths (31.7%) were reported; none were related to vismodegib. CONCLUSIONS: This long-term update of the ERIVANCE BCC trial demonstrated durability of response, efficacy across patient subgroups, and manageable long-term safety of vismodegib in patients with advanced BCC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered prospectively with , number NCT00833417 on January 30, 2009.

Beauval J. B., Ploussard G., Cabarrou B., Roumiguie M., Ouzzane A., Gas J., Goujon A., Marcq G., Mathieu R., Vincendeau S., Cathelineau X., Mongiat-Artus P., Salomon L., Soulie M., Mejean A., de la Taille A., Roupret M., Rozet F.   Improved decision making in intermediate-risk prostate cancer: a multicenter study on pathologic and oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy.  World J. Urol..  2017 ;35 :1191-1197

BACKGROUND: Prognoses for intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) remain heterogeneous. Improved substratification could optimize treatment and monitoring strategies. The objective was to validate this subclassification in a radical prostatectomy (RP) series. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2011, 4038 patients who underwent RP for intermediate-risk PCa in seven French academic centers were included. Unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) PCa was defined as having a primary Gleason score of 4, >/=50% positive biopsy cores (PPBC), or more than one D'Amico intermediate-risk factor (i.e., cT2b, PSA 10-20, or Gleason score 7). Remaining PCa cases were classified as favorable. Main endpoints were pathologic results (pT stage, final Gleason score, surgical margin status), and oncologic outcomes were assessed according to PSA recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 48 months (95% CI = [45-49]). Patients with UIR had worse PSA-RFS (68.17 vs. 81.98% at 4 years, HR = 1.97, 95% CI = [1.71; 2.27], p < 0.0001) compared to those with a favorable disease. The need for adjuvant therapy was significantly greater for UIR patients (43.5 vs. 29.2%, p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, primary Gleason score of 4 (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = [1.55; 2.12], p < 0.0001) and PPBC >/= 50% (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = [1.02; 1.56], p = 0.0286) were significant preoperative predictors for worse PSA-RFS. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the heterogeneity of NCCN intermediate-risk patients and validates (in a large RP cohort) the previously proposed subclassification for this group. This classification can significantly predict both pathologic and oncologic outcomes. This easy-to-use stratification could help physicians' decision making. Prospective study and new tools as genomic tests and novel molecular-based approaches can improve this stratification in the future for patient counseling.

Parker F., Campello C., Lejeune J. P., David P., Herbrecht A., Aghakhani N., Messerer M.   Intramedullary astrocytomas: A French retrospective multicenter study.  Neurochirurgie.  2017 ;63 :402-409

AIM: The authors report the results of a multicenter retrospective series with a long-term follow-up and the analysis of clinical, radiological, surgical data as well as the complementary treatments in patients with intramedullary astrocytomas (IA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all the patients with IA operated on between 1984 and 2011 at 7 French centers (Kremlin-Bicetre, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Nice, and Nimes). The minimum follow-up was 12 months. The clinical evaluation was based on the McCormick scale (MCS) results from the pre- and postoperative period. RESULTS: Data from 95 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of IA were considered: 54 patients were treated at the Neurosurgical Department of Kremlin-Bicetre Hospital, 8 were treated at Lille and 33 were treated in the south region of France. The epidemiological analysis was performed on the whole cohort of patients while follow-up considerations were made solely on the 54 patients managed at Kremlin-Bicetre Hospital to obtain homogeneous data. The average age at diagnosis was 35.6 years without significant gender difference (47 % men for 53 % women). The age at first clinical manifestation was 33.7 years. The average duration of the symptoms before the diagnosis was 22.9 months. Neuropathic pain was the principal revealing symptom (76 % of cases). The localization of IA was thoracic in 40 %, purely cervical in 28.4 %. Complete removal was achieved in 29.5 % of cases when considering the whole cohort and in 38 % of cases treated at Bicetre Hospital. The histological distribution recorded was: grade 1 in 35 %; grade 2 in 35 %; grade 3 in 22 % and grade 4 in 8 %. During the early postoperative period (3 months) a worsening of functional capacity was observed with an increase in the frequencies of ranks 3 and 4 of MCS in 18.4 %. At 5 years follow-up, the frequencies of ranks 1 and 2 were increased. The application of a Cox model for the determination of the relative risk of death for IA grade 1 and 2 (66 patients) showed a probability of survival at 5 years of 78.6 % (CI 95 %: 68.6 %-87.6 %). Survival at 10 years is to 76.8 % (CI 95 %: 62.3 %-84.2 %). CONCLUSION: Surgery is indicated if the patient is symptomatic or the tumor increases in size. A radical excision remains the mainstay of treatment, while searching to preserve the motor function. A total resection was however only possible in 38 % of cases. A regular postoperative follow-up is compulsory and the adjuvant treatment is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to the histological type.

Betrouni N., Munck C., Bensoltana W., Baert G., Dewalle-Vignion A. S., Scherpereel A., Mordon S.   Real-time light dosimetry for intra-cavity photodynamic therapy: Application for pleural mesothelioma treatment.  Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther..  2017 ;18 :155-161

Complete and homogeneous illumination of the target is necessary for the success of a photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedure. In most applications, light dosimetry is done using detectors placed at strategic locations of the target. In this study we propose a novel approach based on the combination of light distribution modeling with spatial localization of the light applicator for real time estimation and display of the applied dose on medical images. The feasibility approach is demonstrated for intrapleural PDT of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Heidenreich A., Chowdhury S., Klotz L., Siemens D. R., Villers A., Ivanescu C., Holmstrom S., Baron B., Wang F., Lin P., Shore N. D.   Impact of Enzalutamide Compared with Bicalutamide on Quality of Life in Men with Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Additional Analyses from the TERRAIN Randomised Clinical Trial.  Eur. Urol..  2017 ;71 :534-542

BACKGROUND: Improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important goal in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of enzalutamide versus bicalutamide on HRQoL in mCRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: TERRAIN is a multinational, phase 2, randomised, double-blind study in asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic men with mCRPC (, NCT01288911). Patients were randomised (1:1) via an interactive voice and web response system to enzalutamide 160mg/d (n=184) or bicalutamide 50mg/d (n=191), with androgen deprivation therapy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: HRQoL was assessed using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P), European Quality of Life 5-Domain Scale (EQ-5D), and Brief Pain Inventory, Short-form questionnaires every 12 wk. Primary and secondary analyses utilised mixed models for repeated measures and pattern mixture models, respectively. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: At 61 wk, 84 (46%) enzalutamide and 39 (20%) bicalutamide patients in the study were assessed. At 61 wk, changes from baseline favoured enzalutamide versus bicalutamide on three FACT-P domains in mixed models for repeated measures analyses and seven in pattern mixture models analyses. There were no differences in changes for EQ-5D index/visual analogue scale scores. Risk of first deterioration was lower with enzalutamide for FACT-P total (hazard ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.89, p=0.007), FACT-G total (hazard ratio: 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.98, p=0.04), PCS pain (hazard ratio: 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.54-1.00, p=0.048), and EQ-5D index (hazard ratio: 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.93, p=0.02) scores versus bicalutamide. Brief Pain Inventory, Short-form scores increased in both groups. There was no difference in time-to-pain progression. Study limitations include the exploratory nature of the HRQoL analyses, lack of multiple comparisons corrections, and unknown effects of anxiety/depression on HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic mCRPC, enzalutamide provides HRQoL benefit versus bicalutamide. PATIENT SUMMARY: Enzalutamide treatment was associated with better health-related quality of life in several domains versus bicalutamide in asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This likely relates to previously reported lower rates of symptomatic disease progression.

Beauval J. B., Cabarrou B., Gandaglia G., Patard P. M., Ouzzane A., de la Taille A., Soulié M., Briganti A., Ploussard G., Rozet F., Roumiguié M.   External validation of a nomogram for identification of pathologically favorable disease in intermediate risk prostate cancer patients.  Prostate.  2017 ;77 :928-933

OBJECTIVE: To establish an external validation of the new nomogram from Gandaglia et al which provides estimates of the probability of pathological favorable disease in pre-operatively defined intermediate-risk PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 2928 intermediate-risk PCa patients according to the D'Amico classification undergoing RP and bilateral lymph node dissection in seven academic centres between 2000 and 2011. Pathologically favorable PCa was defined as low-grade organ-confined disease. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to quantify the overall accuracy (Area Under the Curve, AUC) of the model to predict specimen-confined (SC) disease. Calibration curve was then constructed to illustrate the relationship between the risk-estimates obtained by the model and the observed proportion of SC disease. Kaplan-Meier method was used for PSA recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) assessment. RESULTS: Median age was 68 years. 10.6% patients finally presented pathologically favorable disease characteristics at RP. A higher PSAD (OR = 0.01; 95%CI = 0.00-0.04; P < 0.0001) and percentage of positive cores (OR = 0.97; 95%CI = 0.96-0.98; P < 0.0001) were associated with a reduced probability of favorable disease at RP in multivariate analysis. ROC curve analysis showed strongest accuracy of the model (AUC = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.79-0.84). Favorable PCa had a significantly better PSA recurrence-free survival rates as compared to unfavorable PCa after RP (94.2% vs 74.4% at 4 years, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This external validation of the Gandaglia nomogram shows relevant accuracy with one out of ten patients in this intermediate risk PCa group with pathologically proven organ-confined disease. This validated risk calculator can help physician to distinguish favorable intermediate risk PCa that can be treated by conservative approach or safer nerve-sparing surgery.

Petitnicolas C., Azaïs H., Ghesquière L., Tresch-Bruneel E., Cordoba A., Narducci F., Bresson L., Leblanc E.   Morbidity of Staging Inframesenteric Paraaortic Lymphadenectomy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Compared With Infrarenal Lymphadenectomy.  Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer.  2017 ;27 :575-580

OBJECTIVE: Extended-field chemoradiation is typically used for the management of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Given the low rate of skipped metastases above the inferior mesenteric artery, ilioinframesenteric dissection seems to be an acceptable pattern of paraaortic lymph node dissection (LND). Our objective is to compare the surgical morbidity of inframesenteric LND (IM-LND) with infrarenal LND (IR-LND). METHODS: In our center, all of the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and negative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging at the paraaortic level were offered laparoscopic staging including a diagnostic laparoscopy followed, if negative, by an extraperitoneal paraaortic lymphadenectomy. From January 2011 to September 2015, we included patients who had paraaortic LND from both common iliac bifurcations and divided them into 2 groups according to dissection pattern: to the inferior mesenteric artery (IM-LND) level or to the left renal vein (IR-LND) level. The perioperative and postoperative data were retrospectively recorded. RESULTS: A total of 119 women were included in our study: 56 in the IM-LND group and 63 in the IR-LND group. There was no difference in the patients' characteristics between groups. Regarding the surgical procedure, the operating time was shorter in the IM-LND group than the IR-LND group, 174 +/- 50 minutes versus 209 +/- 61 minutes (P = 0.001), respectively. There was no significant difference in intra- and postoperative complications, overall survival, or progression-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: In our series, exclusive IM-LND surgery is faster than IR-LND and results in similar morbidity and survival rates. These results confirm the feasibility and the applicability of IM-LND to simplify the surgical procedure without impacting survival. More patients should be included in the study to demonstrate the lower rate of morbidity.

Uriburu-Pizarro F., Kasivisvanathan V., Puech P., Villers A.   Pre-biopsy MRI as an adjunct for cancer detection in men with elevated PSA and no previous biopsy.  Transl Androl Urol.  2017 ;6 :387-394

The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in biopsy-naive patients has been strengthened by recent developments such as the PIRADS V2 criteria, which cover acquisition, interpretation, and reporting for clinical practice and data collection for research. Important questions on the role of prostate MRI remain: can MRI be used as a triage test before first biopsy series? Can it be used to avoid the use of systematic biopsies (SB) and instead use only targeted biopsies (TB) to MRI-suspicious lesions? Studies to evaluate image guided TB compared to SB have started to accumulate. Objectives of these studies should be to reduce the detection of clinically insignificant disease, to maximize the detection of clinically significant cancer (CSC), to better assess disease size, grade and location. Accurate diagnosis will allow the choice of the most appropriate treatments options, minimising side effects and reducing overtreatment. Study results on MRI-TB detection rates are promising however some limitations should be considered. The majority of published and ongoing studies have been performed at expert centres, in order to demonstrate the optimal performance of MRI. Then, the validation of this strategy in less specialised institutions will be necessary before incorporating recommendations in international guidelines. It necessitates training for radiologists and urologists to perform and read MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy through education programs and standardization tools. All these advances will be consolidated with expected genetic screening tools to improve the detection of aggressive cancer.

Valerio M., Cerantola Y., Eggener S. E., Lepor H., Polascik T. J., Villers A., Emberton M.   New and Established Technology in Focal Ablation of the Prostate: A Systematic Review.  Eur. Urol..  2017 ;71 :17-34

CONTEXT: Focal therapy of prostate cancer has been proposed as an alternative to whole-gland treatments. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence regarding sources of energy employed in focal therapy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Embase and Medline (PubMed) were searched from 1996 to October 31, 2015 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Ongoing trials were selected from electronic registries. The stage of assessment of each source of energy was determined using the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study recommendations. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Thirty-seven articles reporting on 3230 patients undergoing focal therapy were selected. Thirteen reported on high-intensity focused ultrasound, 11 on cryotherapy, three on photodynamic therapy, four on laser interstitial thermotherapy, two on brachytherapy, three on irreversible electroporation, and one on radiofrequency. High-intensity focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and brachytherapy have been assessed in up to Stage 2b studies. Laser interstitial thermotherapy and irreversible electroporation have been evaluated in up to Stage 2a studies. Radiofrequency has been evaluated in one Stage 1 study. Median follow-up varied between 4 mo and 61 mo, and the median rate of serious adverse events ranged between 0% and 10.6%. Pad-free leak-free continence and potency were obtained in 83.3-100% and 81.5-100%, respectively. In series with intention to treat, the median rate of significant and insignificant disease at control biopsy varied between 0% and 13.4% and 5.1% and 45.9%, respectively. The main limitations were the length of follow-up, the absence of a comparator arm, and study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Focal therapy has been evaluated using seven sources of energy in single-arm retrospective and prospective development studies up to Stage 2b. Focal therapy seems to have a minor impact on quality of life and genito-urinary function. Oncological effectiveness is yet to be defined against standard of care. PATIENT SUMMARY: Seven sources of energy have been employed to selectively ablate discrete areas of prostate cancer. There is high evidence that focal therapy is safe and has low detrimental impact on continence and potency. The oncological outcome has yet to be evaluated against standard of care.

de Montalembert M., Ribeil J. A., Brousse V., Guerci-Bresler A., Stamatoullas A., Vannier J. P., Dumesnil C., Lahary A., Touati M., Bouabdallah K., Cavazzana M., Chauzit E., Baptiste A., Lefebvre T., Puy H., Elie C., Karim Z., Ernst O., Rose C.   Cardiac iron overload in chronically transfused patients with thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome.  PLoS One.  2017 ;12 :e0172147

The risk and clinical significance of cardiac iron overload due to chronic transfusion varies with the underlying disease. Cardiac iron overload shortens the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia, whereas its effect is unclear in those with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), iron does not seem to deposit quickly in the heart. Our primary objective was to assess through a multicentric study the prevalence of cardiac iron overload, defined as a cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2*<20 ms, in patients with thalassemia, SCA, or MDS. Patient inclusion criteria were an accurate record of erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) received, a transfusion history >8 ECs in the past year, and age older than 6 years. We included from 9 centers 20 patients with thalassemia, 41 with SCA, and 25 with MDS in 2012-2014. Erythrocytapharesis did not consistently prevent iron overload in patients with SCA. Cardiac iron overload was found in 3 (15%) patients with thalassemia, none with SCA, and 4 (16%) with MDS. The liver iron content (LIC) ranged from 10.4 to 15.2 mg/g dry weight, with no significant differences across groups (P = 0.29). Abnormal T2* was not significantly associated with any of the measures of transfusion or chelation. Ferritin levels showed a strong association with LIC. Non-transferrin-bound iron was high in the thalassemia and MDS groups but low in the SCA group (P<0.001). Hepcidin was low in thalassemia, normal in SCA, and markedly elevated in MDS (P<0.001). Two mechanisms may explain that iron deposition largely spares the heart in SCA: the high level of erythropoiesis recycles the iron and the chronic inflammation retains iron within the macrophages. Thalassemia, in contrast, is characterized by inefficient erythropoiesis, unable to handle free iron. Iron accumulation varies widely in MDS syndromes due to the competing influences of abnormal erythropoiesis, excess iron supply, and inflammation.