Long G., McNeil C., Schachter J., Robert C., Ribas A., Arance A., Grob J. J., Mortier L., Daud A., Carlino M., Lotem M., Larkin J., Lorigan P., Neyns B., Blank C., Petrella T. M., Hamid O., Zhou H., Ebbinghaus S., Ibrahim N.   PEMBROLIZUMAB VERSUS IPILIMUMAB FOR ADVANCED MELANOMA: FINAL OVERALL SURVIVAL ANALYSIS OF KEYNOTE-006.  Asia-Pac. J. Clin. Oncol..  2016 ;12 :61-61
Leroy H. A., Leroy-Ciocanea C. I., Baroncini M., Bourgeois P., Pellerin P., Labreuche J., Duhamel A., Lejeune J. P.   Internal and external spheno-orbital meningioma varieties: different outcomes and prognoses.  Acta Neurochir..  2016 ;158 :1587-1596

BACKGROUND: Internal variation among spheno-orbital meningiomas (SOM) is surgically challenging. Optic canal invasion management is discussed. METHOD: This retrospective study includes 70 patients with SOM who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2012. Preoperative ophthalmological, neurological and aesthetic clinical signs were collected. All patients benefitted from repeated tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The surgical team consisted of a neurosurgeon and a plastic surgeon. In the majority of cases, resection was followed by bone reconstruction using an autologous iliac crest graft. The extent of resection was evaluated on the dural and osseous sides. Early clinical outcomes, long-term follow-up, recurrence and adjuvant therapies were reported. RESULTS: The mean age was 52 years old, and 91 % of the patients were women. Initial symptoms primarily included proptosis (65 %), decreased visual acuity (39 %) and soft tissue tumefaction (16 %). We classified 40 cases as the internal variety when considering the inner third of the greater wing of the sphenoid, optic canal, anterior clinoid process or cavernous sinus. The remaining cases were described as the external variety. The complete resection rates for the internal and external varieties were 12 % and 61 %, respectively (P < 0.001). In total, 90 % of cases were grade I meningiomas. For grade I, we reported 30 % recurrence, and 50 % of these cases recurred in the first 2 years. Grade II cases without early adjuvant radiotherapy increased at 2 years. We did not observe any difference in recurrence rate among grade I tumours with or without tumour remnants. At the end of follow-up, visual acuity was stabilised or increased in 88 % of patients. In addition, 14 % of patients experienced persistent pain at the location of the iliac harvesting site. CONCLUSIONS: The internal SOM variety exhibited a reduced total resection rate and a shorter progression-free survival (PFS). Unroofing of the optic canal extended PFS. Among grade I cases, the persistence of a negligible tumour remnant did not alter the probability of recurrence. For superior grades, radiotherapy must be administered in addition to surgery as soon as possible. SOMs require prolonged follow-up. Autologous iliac reconstruction is related to substantial morbidity and could be replaced by prosthetic bone three-dimensional reconstruction.

Leroy A., Azaïs H., Garabedian C., Bregegere S., Rubod C., Collier F.   Psychology and sexology are essential, from diagnosis to comprehensive care of endometriosis.  Gynecol. Obstet. Fertil..  2016 ;44 :363-367

Endometriosis, defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is a common but often under diagnosed pathology. The clinical manifestations are varied (chronic pelvic pain, urinary or gastrointestinal symptoms) and can sometimes be very frustrated, delaying the diagnosis. This delay in diagnosis can be a high source of stress responsible for an important psychological impact in these patients, having a sense of misunderstanding and neglect of the medical profession. This climate of stress and anxiety can cause alteration of behavior including sexual disorders. In addition, endometriosis can be revealed as part of an infertility evaluation, and the patient and the couple can already be affected by this situation. The clinical and psychological impact of endometriosis inevitably leads to an impairment of patient's quality of life and sexuality. The objective of this article is to show the psychological consequences of endometriosis and its impact on sexuality, in order to highlight this essential aspect for a comprehensive care of patients.

Leclère F. M., Vogt P., Schoofs M., Mordon S.   Current laser applications in reconstructive microsurgery: A review of the literature.  J. Cosmet. Laser Ther..  2016 ;18 :130-133

BACKGROUND: Microvascular surgery has become an important method for reconstructing surgical defects following trauma, tumor resection, or burns. Laser-assisted microanastomoses (LAMA) were introduced by Jain in 1979 in order to help the microsurgeon reduce both operating time and complications. This article reviews the literature on clinical applications of LAMA. METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed and cross-referenced. Articles between 1979 and 2014 were included. Keywords used were laser, laser microanastomoses, laser microanastomosis, LAMA, and microsurgery. RESULTS: Only seven clinical studies using three different wavelengths were found in the literature: 1,064 nm (Nd: YAG), 10,600 nm (CO2), 514 nm (Argon), and 1,950 nm (Diode). Clinical outcomes, type of procedures, laser wavelength and parameters, and possible wider applications in the operating room are discussed in each case. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate for reconstructive free flap surgery and hand surgery achieved with LAMA appears promising. In particular, use of the 1950-nm diode laser for microsurgery is likely to increase in the near future.

Leclere F. M., Alcolea J. M., Vogt P. M., Moreno-Moraga J., Casoli V., Mordon S., Trelles M. A.   Laser-assisted lipolysis for arm contouring in Teimourian grades III and IV: A prospective study involving 22 patients.  Plast. Surg..  2016 ;24 :35-40

BACKGROUND: Upper arm deformities secondary to weight loss or senile elastosis have led to an increased demand for aesthetic contouring procedures. OBJECTIVE: To objectively assess whether, in Teimourian high-grade upper arm remodelling, laser-assisted lypolysis (LAL) alone could result in patient satisfaction. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, 22 patients were treated for excessive upper arm fat (Teimourian grade III and IV) solely with LAL. The laser used in the present study was a 1470 nm diode laser (Alma Lasers, Israel) with the following parameters: continuous mode, 15 W power and transmission through a 600 mum optical fibre. Previous mathematical modelling suggested that 0.1 kJ was required to destroy 1 mL of fat. Patients were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire. The arm circumference was measured pre- and postoperatively. Treatment parameters, adverse effects and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Pain during the anesthesia and discomfort after the procedure were minimal. Complications included ecchymoses and prolonged edema. The mean (+/- SD) arm circumference decreased 5.5+/-1.0 cm in the right arm (P<0.01) and 5.2+/-1.1 cm in the left arm (P<0.01) in grade III patients and 4.9+/-1.1 cm in the right arm (P<0.01) and 4.9+/-1.1 cm in the left arm (P<0.01) in grade IV patients. Although the circumference of both arms significantly decreased in grade III and grade IV patients, the skin tightening remained incomplete. Overall, the average opinion of treatment was poor for both patients and investigators. Of the 22 patients, only nine (41%) would recommend this treatment. CONCLUSION: LAL for upper arm remodelling is not sufficient to ensure full skin tightening for patients with Teimourian grades III and IV upper arm deformities. A complementary surgery is mandatory for grades III and IV.

Le Tourneau C., Dreno B., Kirova Y., Grob J. J., Jouary T., Dutriaux C., Thomas L., Lebbé C., Mortier L., Saiag P., Avril M. F., Maubec E., Joly P., Bey P., Cosset J. M., Sun J. S., Asselain B., Devun F., Marty M. E., Dutreix M.   First-in-human phase I study of the DNA-repair inhibitor DT01 in combination with radiotherapy in patients with skin metastases from melanoma.  Br. J. Cancer.  2016 ;114 :1199-1205

BACKGROUND: DT01 is a DNA-repair inhibitor preventing recruitment of DNA-repair enzymes at damage sites. Safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy through intratumoural and peritumoural injections of DT01 were evaluated in combination with radiotherapy in a first-in-human phase I trial in patients with unresectable skin metastases from melanoma. METHODS: Twenty-three patients were included and received radiotherapy (30 Gy in 10 sessions) on all selected tumour lesions, comprising of two lesions injected with DT01 three times a week during the 2 weeks of radiotherapy. DT01 dose levels of 16, 32, 48, 64 and 96 mg were used, in a 3+3 dose escalation design, with an expansion cohort at 96 mg. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 180 days. All patients were evaluable for safety and pharmacokinetics. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum-tolerated dose was not reached. Most frequent adverse events were reversible grades 1 and 2 injection site reactions. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated a systemic passage of DT01. Twenty-one patients were evaluable for efficacy on 76 lesions. Objective response was observed in 45 lesions (59%), including 23 complete responses (30%). CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoural and peritumoural DT01 in combination with radiotherapy is safe and pharmacokinetic analyses suggest a systemic passage of DT01.

Le Rhun E., Dhermain F., Vogin G., Reyns N., Metellus P.   Radionecrosis after stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases.  Expert Rev. Neurother..  2016 ;16 :903-914

INTRODUCTION: Radionecrosis (RN) represents the main complication of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases. It may be observed in up to 34% of cases at 24 months after treatment and associated with significant morbidity in 10-17%. AREAS COVERED: Our aim is to discuss the results of original studies on RN related to SRT for brain metastases. Expert commentary: Although the development of RN is unpredictable, larger volume of the lesion, prior whole brain irradiation, and higher dose of radiation represent the major risk factors. RN appears on MRI as contrast-enhancing necrotic lesions, surrounded by edema, occurring at least 3 months after SRT, localized within fields of irradiation. No firm criteria are established. Surgery can provide symptomatic relief but is associated with a risk of complications. Corticosteroids are considered the standard of care treatment, despite limited efficacy and many adverse effects. Bevacizumab represents another interesting option that needs to be validated.

Lavogiez C., Mortier L., Mordon S.   Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in dermatology. Part II: Viral and parasitic infections; perspectives.  Ann. Dermatol. Venereol..  2016 ;143 :62-69
Kuntsfeld R., Grob J. J., Mortier L., Ascierto P. A., Guillot B., Williams S., Xynos I., Basset-Seguin N., Hansson J., Hauschild A.   Safety and efficacy of vismodegib and impact of treatment breaks in advanced basal cell carcinoma: Interim analysis of the STEVIE study in 499 patients.  J. Am. Acad. Dermatol..  2016 ;74 :AB204-AB204
Kunstfeld R., Hauschild A., Basset-Seguin N., Hansson J., Dreno B., Mortier L., Ascierto P., Licitra L., Dimier N., Xynos I., Grob J. J.   Development of muscle spasm during Vismodegib treatment and the effect of treatment interruptions: exploratory analyses from the STEVIE study.  Melanoma Res..  2016 ;26 :E78-E79