Balossier A., Blond S., Reyns N.   Endoscopic Versus Stereotactic Procedure for Pineal Tumor Biopsies: Focus on Overall Efficacy Rate.  World Neurosurg..  2016 ;92 :223-228

OBJECTIVE: The management of pineal region tumors depends on the histologic subtypes. Two minimally invasive techniques are available: endoscopic intraventricular biopsies and stereotactic biopsies. The recent Southampton and Lille series are the largest endoscopic and stereotactic series of pineal region tumors reporting both diagnosis rate and accuracy rate, respectively; we elaborated on these results in the light of other recent studies. METHODS: We compared the Southampton endoscopic series with the Lille series, reflecting our 25-year experience of stereotactic biopsies, and the metadata of the literature for both approaches, as reported in the 2013 Report of the French-Speaking Society of Neurosurgery on tumors of the pineal region. RESULTS: The results of the Southampton series match the endoscopic literature, in particular regarding the diagnosis rate (81.2%) and the perioperative morbidity (25.0%), and provide a rarely reported accuracy rate (78.6%), giving access to the overall efficacy rate (63.8%). The results of the Lille series match the stereotactic literature and show better results than endoscopic biopsies concerning the diagnosis rate (98.9%), accuracy rate (100%), resulting overall efficacy rate (98.9%), and perioperative morbidity (6.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The Southampton and Lille series provide a unique opportunity to compare the overall efficacy rates of endoscopic and stereotactic biopsies, respectively. The stereotactic approach is safer and more effective for biopsies of pineal region tumors. To improve the safety and reliability of endoscopic biopsies, various methods have to be evaluated: alternative burr-hole strategies, use of neuronavigation, and a combination of flexible and rigid endoscopes.

Azaïs H., Schmitt C., Tardivel M., Kerdraon O., Stallivieri A., Frochot C., Betrouni N., Collinet P., Mordon S.   Assessment of the specificity of a new folate-targeted photosensitizer for peritoneal metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer to enable intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy. A preclinical study.  Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther..  2016 ;13 :130-138

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer's prognosis remains dire after primary therapy. Recurrence rate is disappointingly high as 60% of women with epithelial ovarian cancer considered in remission will develop recurrent disease within 5 years. Special attention to undetected peritoneal metastasis during surgery is necessary as they are the main predictive factors of recurrences. Folate Receptor alpha (FRalpha) shows promising prospects in targeting ovarian cancerous cells and intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be a solution in addition to macroscopic cytoreductive surgery to treat peritoneal micrometastasis. The aim of this preclinical study is to assess the specificity of a folate-targeted photosensitizer for ovarian peritoneal micrometastasis. METHODS: We used the NuTu-19 epithelial ovarian cancer cell line to induce peritoneal carcinomatosis in female Fischer 344 rats. Three groups of 6 rats were studied (Control (no photosensitizer)/Non-conjugated photosensitizer (Porph)/Folate-conjugated photosensitizer (Porph-s-FA)). Four hours after the administration of the photosensitizer, animals were sacrificed and intraperitoneal organs tissues were sampled. FRalpha tissue expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Tissue incorporation of photosensitizers was assessed by confocal microscopy and tissue quantification. RESULTS: FRalpha is overexpressed in tumor, ovary, and liver whereas, peritoneum, colon, small intestine, and kidney do not express it. Cytoplasmic red endocytosis vesicles observed by confocal microscopy are well correlated to FRalpha tissue expression. Photosensitizer tissue quantification shows a mean tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 9.6. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that this new generation folate-targeted photosensitizer is specific of epithelial ovarian peritoneal metastasis and may allow the development of efficient and safe intraperitoneal PDT procedure.

Azaïs H., Betrouni N., Mordon S., Collinet P.   Targeted approaches and innovative illumination solutions: A new era for photodynamic therapy applications in gynecologic oncology?.  Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther..  2016 ;13 :128-129
Atkinson V., Ascierto P. A., Long G. V., Brady B., Dutriaux C., Maio M., Mortier L., Hassel J. C., Rutkowski P., McNeil C., Kalinka-Warzocha E., Lebbe C., Ny L., Chacon M., Queirolo P., Loquai C., Cheema P., Berrocal A., Eizmendi K. M., De la Cruz-Merino L., Bar-Sela G., Horak C., Jiang J., Hardy H., Robert C.   Two-year survival and safety update in patients (pts) with treatment-naive advanced melanoma (MEL) receiving nivolumab (NIVO) or dacarbazine (DTIC) in CheckMate 066.  J. Transl. Med..  2016 ;14
Allayous C., Dalle S., Lacour J. P., Mortier L., Dutriaux C., Saiag P., Dalac S., Aubin F., Maubec E., Marie Beylot Barry, Lesimple T., Arnault J. P., De Quatrebarbes J., Stoebner P. E., Dreno B., Chami I., Porcher R., Kowal A., Leccia M. T., Lebbe C.   Immunotherapy-treated melanoma brain metastases within the French national cohort. MelBase.  J. Clin. Oncol..  2016 ;34 :9556-9556
Aboukais R., Zairi F., Lejeune J. P., Le Rhun E., Vermandel M., Blond S., Devos P., Reyns N.   Radiosurgery for recurrent Grade 2 meningioma Response.  J. Neurosurg..  2016 ;124 :584-585
Aboukaïs R., Zairi F., Boustia F., Bourgeois P., Leclerc X., Lejeune J. P.   Vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery convergence aneurysms treated by endovascular or surgical treatment: Mid- and long-term outcome.  Neurochirurgie.  2016 ;62 :72-77

INTRODUCTION: Management of vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery convergence (VA-PICA) saccular aneurysms requires a specialized neurovascular team. The objective is to preserve the functional outcome while performing a complete and reliable long-term exclusion of the aneurysm. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with VA-PICA saccular aneurysms after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective series of 21 consecutive patients with a VA-PICA saccular aneurysm treated between 2000 and 2012 at our institution. Treatment option (endovascular or microsurgical) was decided for each patient following a multidisciplinary discussion. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were treated for a VA-PICA saccular aneurysm including 16 for a ruptured aneurysm and 5 for an asymptomatic aneurysm. Among all patients, 11 underwent endovascular treatment and 10 had microsurgical treatment. Our results showed a major aneurysm recurrence after endovascular treatment in 3 patients that required a further endovascular treatment in 2 cases. These 3 major recurrences occurred after treatment of a ruptured aneurysm when the initial angiography demonstrated the origin of the PICA at the neck of the aneurysm. After microsurgery, angiography showed a remnant neck in 2 patients including 1 treated by further endovascular procedure. CONCLUSION: VA-PICA aneurysms are rare and require multidisciplinary management. Microsurgical treatment should be discussed when the PICA originates from the aneurysmal neck, particularly in patients with a ruptured small aneurysm, in order to obtain a reliable and long-term exclusion of the aneurysm.

Mordon S., Cochrane C., Tylcz J. B., Betrouni N., Mortier L., Koncar V.   Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.  Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther.  2015 ;12 :1-8

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described:(i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances:higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility.

Bechet D., Auger F., Couleaud P., Marty E., Ravasi L., Durieux N., Bonnet C., Plenat F., Frochot C., Mordon S., Tillement O., Vanderesse R., Lux F., Perriat P., Guillemin F., Barberi-Heyob M.   Multifunctional ultrasmall nanoplatforms for vascular-targeted interstitial photodynamic therapy of brain tumors guided by real-time MRI.  Nanomedicine.  2015 ;11 :657-70

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for brain tumors appears to be complementary to conventional treatments. A number of studies show the major role of the vascular effect in the tumor eradication by PDT. For interstitial PDT (iPDT) of brain tumors guided by real-time imaging, multifunctional nanoparticles consisting of a surface-localized tumor vasculature targeting neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) peptide and encapsulated photosensitizer and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, have been designed. Nanoplatforms confer photosensitivity to cells and demonstrate a molecular affinity to NRP-1. Intravenous injection into rats bearing intracranial glioma exhibited a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for angiogenic endothelial cells lining the neovessels mainly located in the peripheral tumor. By using MRI completed by NRP-1 protein expression of the tumor and brain adjacent to tumor tissues, we checked the selectivity of the nanoparticles. This study represents the first in vivo proof of concept of closed-head iPDT guided by real-time MRI using targeted ultrasmall nanoplatforms. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR:The authors constructed tumor vascular peptide targeting multifunctional silica-based nanoparticles, with encapsulated gadolinium oxide as MRI contrast agent and chlorin as a photosensitizer, as a proof of concept novel treatment for glioblastoma in an animal model.

Leclere F. M., Alcolea J. M., Vogt P., Moreno-Moraga J., Mordon S., Casoli V., Trelles M. A.   Laser-assisted lipolysis for arm contouring in Teimourian grades I and II:a prospective study of 45 patients.  Lasers Med Sci.  2015 ;30 :1053-9

Upper arm deformities secondary to weight loss or senile elastosis have led to an increased demand for aesthetic contouring procedures. We conducted this study to objectively assess if, in Teimourian low-grade upper arm remodelling, one session of laser-assisted lypolisis (LAL) could result in full patient satisfaction. Between 2011 and 2013, 45 patients were treated for unsightly fat arm Teimourian grade I (15 patients), grade IIa (15 patients) and grade IIb (15 patients) with one session of LAL. The laser used in this study was a 1470-nm diode laser (Alma Lasers, Cesarea, Israel) with the following parameters:continuous mode, 15 W power and transmission through a 600-mum optical fibre. Previous mathematical modelling suggested that 0.1 kJ was required in order to destroy 1 ml of fat. Treatment parameters and adverse effects were recorded.The arm circumference and skin pinch measurements were assessed pre and postoperatively. Patients were asked to file a satisfaction questionnaire. Pain during the anaesthesia and discomfort after the procedure were minimal. Complications included prolonged oedema in 11 patients. The average arm circumference decreased by 4.9 +/- 0.4 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 4.7 +/- 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade I patients, 5.5 +/- 0.6 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 5.2 +/- 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade IIa patients and 5.4 +/- 0.5 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 5.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade IIB patients. The skin tightening effect was confirmed by the reduction of the skin calliper measurements in all three groups. Overall mean opinion of treatment was high for both patients and investigators. Of the 45 patients, all but one would recommend this treatment. A single session of LAL in upper arm remodelling for Teimourian grades I to IIb is a safe and reproducible technique. The procedure allows reduction in the amount of adipose deposits while providing full skin tightening.